Posttraumatic stress disorder (also known as post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to any event that results in psychological trauma.


This event may involve the threat of death to oneself or to someone else, or to one's own or someone else's physical, sexual, or psychological integrity, overwhelming the individual's ability to cope.


As an effect of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more enduring than the more commonly seen acute stress response.


Diagnostic symptoms for PTSD include re-experiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, and increased arousal – such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger, and hypervigilance. Formal diagnostic criteria (both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10) require that the symptoms last more than one month and cause significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.


The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Post-traumatic stress disorderincludes the 22 symptoms listed below:


  • Nightmares.
  • Persistent daily thoughts.
  • Persistent memories.
  • Flashbacks.
  • Emotional problems.
  1. Emotionally numbness.
  2. Detachment.
  3. Trouble feeling affectionate.
  4. Startling easily.
  5. Irritability.
  6. Aggression.
  7. Losing interest.
  8. Feelings of intense guilt.
  • Physical symptoms.
  1. Headaches.
  2. Gastrointestinal complaints.
  3. Immune system problems.
  4. Dizziness.
  5. Chest pain.
  6. Body aches.
  • Social problems.
  • Sleep problems.


Following is a list of causes or underlying conditions (see also Misdiagnosis of underlying causes of Post-traumatic stress disorder) that could possibly cause Post-traumatic stress disorderincludes:


  • Terrifying ordeal - violent attacks, war, assault, rape, torture, kidnapping, etc.
  • Child abuse.
  • Serious accidents.
  • Natural disasters - e.g. earthquake, flood, hurricanes, etc.
  • Manmade disaster - e.g. plane crash, bombing, etc.


The list of treatments mentioned in various sources for Post-traumatic stress disorder includes the following list. Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment or change in treatment plans.


  • Psychotherapy.
  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
  2. Behavioral therapy.
  • Antidepressant medications.
  1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
  2. Fluoxetine.
  3. Sertraline.
  4. Fluvoxamine.
  5. Paroxetine.
  6. Citalopram.


Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed as possibly helpful for Post-traumatic stress disorder may include:


  • Kava.
  • Lavender oil.
  • Self-hypnosis.
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