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Grave's Disease

Grave's disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid. The thyroid is a small gland in the front of the neck. It makes hormones called T3 and T4 that regulate how the body uses energy. Thyroid hormone levels are controlled by the pituitary, which is a pea-sized gland in the brain. It makes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), ...

Hiccups

Hiccups are sudden, involuntary contractions of the diaphragm muscle. As the muscle contracts repeatedly, the opening between the vocal cords snaps shut to check the inflow of air and makes the hiccup sound. Irritation of the nerves that extend from the neck to the chest can cause hiccups.   Although associated with a variety of ...

Impetigo

Impetigo (pronounced im-puh-TIE-go) is a contagious, superficial infection of the skin caused by staphylococcus (Staph) and streptococcus (Strep) bacteria. Impetigo is more common in children (especially 2- to 5-year-olds) than in adults. Impetigo is most likely to occur in warm and humid environments and is most commonly spread by close ...

Iritis

The iris is the circular, colored portion of the front of the eye with the dark pupil in the center.   The iris is made up of muscular fibers that control the amount of light entering the pupil so that we can see clearly. The iris accomplishes this task by making the pupil smaller in bright light and larger in dim light.   ...

Jet Lag

Jet lag, also called desynchronosis, is a temporary disorder that causes fatigue, insomnia, and other symptoms as a result of air travel across time zones.   A tiny part of the brain called the hypothalamus acts like an alarm clock to activate various body functions such as hunger, thirst, and sleep. It also regulates body ...

Kidney Stones

A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract. Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and often severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones are sometimes called renal calculi.   The condition of having kidney stones is termed ...

Knee Pain

Knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaint that brings people to their doctor. With today's increasingly active society, the number of knee problems is increasing. Knee pain has a wide variety of specific causes and treatments.   Anatomy of the Knee   The knee joint's main function is to bend and ...

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a common disorder caused by the inability to digest lactose, a carbohydrate found in milk and milk products. It typically causes symptoms of bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Avoidance of milk and other dairy products alleviates most symptoms of lactose intolerance.   Lactose molecules cannot ...

Laryngitis

The larynx is the voice box that allows us to speak, shout, whisper, and sing. The larynx consists of a cartilage skeleton that houses the vocal cords that are covered by a mucus lining. Muscles inside the larynx adjust the position, shape, and tension of the vocal cords, allowing us to make different sounds from whispering to to singing. Any ...

Leprosy

Leprosy, also called Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. Leprosy can lead to progressive permanent damage of these structures, and the resulting devastating disfigurement and disability has led to the historical ...

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