Bulimia, also called bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder. Bulimia is characterized by episodes of secretive excessive eating (bingeing) followed by inappropriate methods of weight control, such as self-induced vomiting (purging), abuse of laxatives and diuretics, or excessive exercise.
Like anorexia, bulimia is a psychological disorder. It is another condition that goes beyond out-of-control dieting. The cycle of overeating and purging can quickly become an obsession similar to anaddiction to drugs or other substances. The disorder generally occurs after a variety of unsuccessful attempts at dieting.
Bulimia is estimated to affect between 3% of all women in the U.S. at some point in their lifetime. About 6% of teen girls and 5% of college-aged females are believed to suffer from bulimia. These numbers are somewhat lower than earlier estimates of theprevalence of bulimia due to the precise criteria now established for the diagnosis (see below).
Approximately 10% of identified bulimic patients are men. Bulimics are also susceptible to other compulsions, affective disorders, or addictions. Twenty to 40% of women with bulimia also have a history of problems related to drug or alcohol use, suggesting that many affected women may have difficulties with control of behavioral impulses.
Unlike anorexics, bulimics experience significant weight fluctuations, but their weight loss is usually not as severe or obvious as anorexics. The long-term prognosis for bulimics is slightly better than for anorexics, and the recovery rate is felt to be higher. However, many bulimics continue to retain slightly abnormal eating and dieting behaviors even after the recovery period.
The secrecy of bulimia stems from the shame that bulimics often attach to the disorder. Binge eating is not triggered by intense hunger. It is a response to depression, stress, or other feelings related to body weight, shape, or food. Binge eating often brings on a feeling of calm or happiness (euphoria), but the self-loathing because of the overeating soon replaces the short-lived euphoria.
Often, the individual will feel an impairment or loss of control during the binge eating and the purging becomes a way of regaining control. Not all bulimics engage in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas during the current episode.
Some may fast for days following a binge episode. Others may resort to excessive exercise as a method to regain their control and rid their body of the possible weight gained during the binge. Excessive exercise is that which interferes with normal daily activities or when it occurs at inappropriate times or in inappropriate settings, or when it continues despite illness or injury.
Physiological symptoms of bulimia:
- Person may be under-, over-, or normal weight.
- Swollen glands, puffiness in the cheeks, or broken vessels under the eyes.
- Sore throat.
- Fatigue and muscle ache.
- Unexplained tooth decay.
- Frequent weight fluctuations.
Behavioral symptoms of bulimia:
- Secretive eating (missing food).
- Avoidance of restaurants, planned meals or social events if food is present.
- Self-disgust when too much has been eaten.
- Bathroom visits after meals.
- The use of diet pills.
- Rigid and harsh exercise regimes.
- Fear of being fat, regardless of weight.
- Bingeing that may alternate with fasting.
- Preoccupation / constant talk about food or weight.
- Vomiting and laxative use.
- Shoplifting (sometimes food or laxatives).
- Attitude Shifts.
- Mood shifts including depression, sadness, guilt, and self-hate.
- Severe self-criticism.
- The need for approval.
- Self-worth determined by weight.
- Feeling out of control.
Bulimia can be hidden from others, since bulimics appear to be within a normal weight range. The binge/purge episodes may be a few times a week or several times a day.
Physical complications include dental problems, swelling of theparotid glands, digestive problems, and electrolyte imbalance.
As with anorexia, there is currently no definite known cause of bulimia. Because of the complexity of the disorder, researchers within the medical and psychological fields continue to explore its dynamics.
Bulimia is generally felt to begin with a dissatisfaction of the person's body. The individual may actually be underweight, but when the person looks in a mirror they see a distorted image and feel heavier than they really are. At first, this distorted body image leads to dieting. As the body image in the mirror continues to be seen as larger than it actually is, the dieting escalates and can lead to bulimic practices.
In certain neurological or medical conditions, there can be disturbed eating behavior, but the essential psychological feature of bulimia, the extreme concern with body shape and weight, is not present. For example, overeating is a common feature in depression, however, these individuals do not engage in inappropriate weight-loss behaviors and are not overly concerned with body image and weight loss as is characteristic of the person with bulimia.
Organic causes for bulimia are being investigated. There is evidence that bulimia and other eating disorders may be related to abnormalities in levels of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) within the brain, specifically theneurotransmitter serotonin.
Other studies of people with bulimia have found alterations in metabolic rate, decreased perceptions of satiety, and abnormal neuroendocrine regulation (the process by which the nervous system interacts with production of hormones and hormone-like substances).
Patients with bulimia present a variety of medical and psychological complications which are usually considered to be reversible through a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Treatment can be managed by either a physician, psychiatrist, or in some cases, a clinical psychologist.
The extent of the medical complications generally dictates the primary treatment manager. A psychiatrist, with both medical and psychological training, is perhaps the optimum treatment manager.
A number of antidepressant medications have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of bulimia. Several studies have demonstrated thatfluoxetine (Prozac), a member of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of antidepressants, has been effective in the treatment of bulimia. And the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved fluoxetine for the treatment of bulimia.
Other types of antidepressants, including the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and buspirone (Buspar) have all been shown to decrease bingeing and vomiting in people suffering from bulimia. However, the SSRIs remain the first choice for treatment due to their relative safety and low incidence of side effects.
Other drugs are currently under investigation as possible treatments for bulimia. Examples are the antiepileptic drug topiramate and the serotoninantagonist ondansetron.
Some patients may require hospitalization due to the extent of the medical or psychological complications. Others may seek outpatient programs. Still others may require only weekly counseling and monitoring by a practitioner. Stabilization of the patient's physical condition will be the immediate goal if the individual is in a life-threatening state.
The primary goals of treatment should address both physical and psychological needs of the patient in order to restore physical health and normal eating patterns. The patient needs to identify internal feelings and distorted beliefs that led to the disorder initially.
An appropriate treatment approach addresses underlying issues of control, self-perception, and family dynamics. Nutritional education and behavior management provides the patient with healthy alternatives to weight management. Group counseling or support groups can assist the patient in the recovery process as well.
The ultimate goal should be for the patient to accept herself/himself and lead a physically and emotionally healthy life. Restoration of physical andmental health will probably take time, and results will be gradual.
Patience is a vital part of the recovery process. A positive attitude coupled with much effort on the part of the affected individual is another integral component to a successful recovery.